The Italian data were  supplied by Masali, of the University of Torino (ref. 89). Italians were measured on the beaches near Ancona in 1990. The majority of these subjects were from the highly industrialised regions of Northern Italy so a second survey was conducted in 1991 to obtain measures from Southern italians.   People in the North & Central regions are both taller and heavier than their Southern counterparts, the two regions were combined using population data for towns, in the proportion 28% South, 72% North.