The Japanese statures were calculated from Kimura (ref 80) and from 1992-4 studies undertaken by the Research Institute of Human Engineering for Quality of Life (HQL) (ref 94). An additional source of female data was supplied by Kumi Ashizawa (ref 81).

Because these data are quite old, the year is included in the population name listing. Much of any change in size over time is determined by the culture of what people eat, so it is impossible to predict forwards to the present day, and therefore until new data become available we can only advise caution in using the data - apply more extreme percentiles and do careful testing with representative samples of your particular intended user group.